Income Generating Activity is the focal strength in the development sector. Capital and financial services take the all factors of production into coordination, where into values are added in every stage. In the third world countries, the scenario is—the formal banking sector does not offer financial services to the underprivileged people in principle. Nevertheless, to augment enrichment in all stairs, the best and synchronized utilization of assets and opportunities are essential, wherein financial services are crucial catalyst. SSS, to provide financial services to the disadvantaged people, launched financial services-oriented program into operation in 1991.
The central goal of the financial services program is: to provide the people with financial and technical services to run income generating activities and uproot poverty through enhancing income, assets and capability.
Objective and Methodology
- Organizing and inspiring people for development;
- Increasing consciousness to alleviate superstitions and antisocial events;
- Providing financial services, training and technical supports to run IGAs;
- Motivating towards savings for enhancing assets and capacities;
- Creating self and wage-employment and ensuring women empowerment
- Building up families and society beyond poverty through sustainable earnings.
SSS Micro-finance statistic at-a-glance as on 30 January 2020
|1.||Number of Districts Covered||32|
|2.||Number of Branches||395|
|3.||Number of Areas||66|
|4.||Number of Zones||14|
|5.||Number of Groups||30365|
|Number of Members||712004|
|7.||Number of Borrowers||562833|
|8.||Borrower & Member Ratio (percentage)||79.04%|
|9.||Number of Agrosar Borrowers||110437|
|10.||Amount of Member Savings (Tk.)||9430195971|
|11.||Amount of Loan Outstanding (Principal) (Tk.)||22273044554|
|12.||Average Loan Size (JAGORON) (Tk.)||42000|
|13.||Average Loan Size (AGROSAR) (Tk.)||167000|
|14.||Savings per Member (Tk.)||13244|
|15.||Savings and Loan Outstanding Ratio (percentage)||42.33%|
|16.||Loan Outstanding per Field Officer (Tk.)||10864899|
|17.||Agrosar Loan Outstanding against Total Outstanding (percentage) (Tk.)||47.70%|
|18.||Portfolio at Risk (PAR) (percentage)||3.56%|
|19.||One Time Realization (OTR) (percentage)||98.86%|
|20.||Operating Self Sufficiency (OSS) (percentage)||142.67%||As on 30 June 2019|
|21.||Financial Self Sufficiency (FSS) (percentage)||141.29%||As on 30 June 2019|
|22.||Debt to Capital Ratio (DCR)||2.47:1||As on 30 June 2019|
Financial service, a unique factor in the development, related to the underprivileged people’s socioeconomic scenarios, is designed with the innovation, welfare philosophy, demand of the people and diversified efforts, which is illustrated below:
Credit activities, a set of prominent procedures, enhance income, purchasing-power and living-standard of the underprivileged people and equalize disparities, are inscribed with the features mentioned below:
Inclusive Services: Providing credit to the target family in accordance with need, opportunity of receiving more than one credit, savings scheme, security fund activities, remittance transfer activities and the like.
Disbursement Process: Group and weekly meeting-based.
Agenda of the Weekly Meeting: Superstition, enrichment, empowerment, food-nutrition and health, education and culture, credit policies etcetera.
Function of the Weekly Meeting: Member enrollment, realizing installments of savings and credit, making proposal for security fund’s facilities and so on.
Time Boundary of Disbursement: Within two weeks of inclusion as a member.
Ceiling of Credit: Tk. 10 thousand to 20 lac depending on economic conditions and capability of the borrower.
Time Boundary of Repayment of Credit: Generally one-year and in special case it may be two-year following a grace-period for paying up first installment is 15 days.
Service-Charge: Zero to 24 percent counting on declining method (calculated on the outstanding).
Repayment System: Weekly, monthly or at-a-time according to the nature of the credit.
Field of Credit: Agriculture (crop-vegetable, fishery, livestock, gardening), small and medium business, cottage and handicraft, direct services, overseas employment and so on.
Category of Credit: In the development dimension, genuine scenario at the grassroots is taken into concern to classify the families. In the criterion of socio-economic conditions, the families fall into stratums–ultra-poor, lower-middle and middle class, those are core characteristics to design credit services of the organization. The principal credits of the organization are—
- Buniad: for ultra-poor,
- Jagoron: for moderate poor and lower class and
- Agrosor: for middle class (entrepreneur).
To sustain the living-standard and progress of the target family, only one credit is not sufficient, simultaneously they have to face with a variety of special circumstances. In the light of these conditions, the organization has launched some subsidiary credits—
- Sufolon: for seasonal credit on crops and vegetables cultivation and beef-fattening and
- Sahos: for disaster stricken members.
Besides, there are some particular objectives-oriented secondary credits—
- Nabanna, and
The families are getting opportunity to receive a special credit along with a principal one in line with their capacity.
To alleviate poverty and promote sustainable development are the principal attention of the organization, where financial service is driving-force, which possesses a unique and diversified properties, that draw up the attraction of the general people. In 2018-19, the momentous achievements of the program are illustrated below:
Credit program belonging to the organization, illuminated with inclusive appellation, supplies the underprivileged people with demanded amount of credit, where need and capability are the central view of consideration. The people, with the spirit of self-enrichment, fix up the credit (received money) into investment to run income generating activities, which turns out the economic activities vibrant in every nook and cranny of rural and urban economies. In 2018-19, the organization disbursed Tk. 3,354.18 crore to 6,63,129 members. Conversely, as on 30 June 2019, the cumulative disbursement of credit stands at Tk. 22,283.91 crore, credit outstanding gets the figure Tk. 1,832.93 crore and in general recovery rate is 99.72 percent. Figure-2.1 illustrates the field-wise analysis of credit activities.
In 2018-19, the disbursement got 6.99 percent growth with the significant realization rate, which attributes to efficiency and quality services, worker-member amiable relations, managerial creativity and configuration, member-friendly principles and sound work-environment of the organization.
Variation in usage of capital brought forward the category in credit program, where socioeconomic condition, capacity, opportunity, environment are the rational parameters, which is the prolific indicator to augment welfare. Because, the target families get chance to take up more than one credit in accordance with their needs, which paves up the way of the best utilization of assets and capability, that makes the flow of income extend to the climax, where they traverse one to another economic-stages by degrees, and calls in the positive changes in the national economy.
In 2018-19, SSS credit disbursement pool occupies 17 categories, which are disclosed in figure-2.2. This analysis informs that the position of Jagoron and Agrosor credits is higher than others according to disbursement. In the figure of borrowers, Jagoron possesses apex place which reveals: the organization lays emphasis on families belonging to lower and middle class to supply capital in self-employment activities. The families adopt development strategies, financial and technical services and turn on the facility of the best employment of their wealth, capacity and potentiality, which keep them in the circle of progression and towards the enrichment gradually. In this way, income generation gets speed accompanied by assets and dexterity that grows them to be entrepreneurs, where self and family-based employments are in creation and over the time, there are engendered wage-employments. As on June 2019, entrepreneur families come at 92,619 in the organization, of them 70 percent has promoted from Jagoron credit program.
From the overview, Sufolon credit is on the top of other secondary-credits by both disbursement and borrower, which implies—the services of the organization are put into application in agriculture and labor intensive activities, where the marginalized people are in engagement. Besides, the other categories of credit are designed to fulfill particular purposes, which are set to operation for sustainable development.
On all judgment, the collateral-free financial services of the organization inaugurate a route of economic emancipation of the grassroots, which acts as genial force to build up poverty and hunger-free society, and cultivates peace and comfort in every household of the populace. As priority is given to the female to take up credit and other services, 99 percent of the target people of the organization are women, who get opportunity to keep into engagement in economic activities, which produces empowerment for the women and the underprivileged people, in this fashion the contribution of the underprivileged people to the national economy is adding up steadily.